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Ten common electronic components
For engineers engaged in the electronic industry, electronic components is a need to contact every day, every day need to use, but the inside of the doors, replicating the many engineers may not understand. Here is a list of the top 10 electronic components of the project, as well as the basic concepts and knowledge that are relevant to you. 
A, resistance 
As a worker in the electronics industry, resistance is unknown. Its importance, no doubt. People say "resistance is the most used element in all electronic circuits." 
Resistance, which is the resistance of matter to the current, so it is called the resistive substance under its action. Resistance will lead to changes in the flux of electrons, the smaller the resistance, the larger the flux, and vice versa. A substance without resistance or resistance is called an electrical conductor, or a conductor. A substance that cannot form an electric current is called an electrical insulator, or an insulator. 
In physics, Resistance is used to indicate the size of the conductor's Resistance to current. The greater the resistance of the conductor, the greater the resistance of the conductor to the current. Different conductors, different resistors, are a characteristic of the conductor itself. Resistance elements are energy dissipation elements that are impeding the current. 
Resistance value of resistance element size normally associated with temperature, the size of the measure of the resistance affected by temperature parameters is temperature coefficient, defined as the temperature rise per 1 when the percentage of resistance to change. 
The resistance is expressed in "R" in the circuit, as in: R1 means resistance of 1. The main functions of resistance in circuit are shunt, current, partial pressure, offset, etc. 
Second, the capacitance 
Capacitance (or Capacitance, Capacitance) refers to the reserves of charge in the context of the given potential difference; Remember C, the international unit is farad (F). In general, the charge moves in the electric field, and when the conductor has a medium, it impedes the charge movement and makes the charge accumulate on the conductor. The most common example of the cumulative storage of charge is two parallel metal plates. It's also known as a capacitor. 
The capacitance is usually expressed in "C" in the circuit (for example, the C13 indicates a capacity of 13). Capacitors are made up of two pieces of metal, separated by insulating materials. The characteristics of a capacitor are mainly through direct communication. The size of the capacitance is said to store electrical energy, the size of the capacitance effect is called the capacitive reactance of ac signal, it is associated with the frequency of the ac signal and capacitance. Capacitive reactance XC = 1/2 PI fc (f said the frequency of the ac signal, capacitance C said) is commonly used in telephone with electrolytic capacitor, the kinds of ceramics capacitors, SMD capacitors, monolithic capacitors, tantalum capacitors, polyester capacitors, etc. 
Identification method: the recognition method of the capacitor is basically the same as the identification method of the resistance, and three kinds of direct and linear, color-coded and counting. The basic unit of capacitance is expressed in farad (F), and the other units are the millimethod (mF), micromethod (uF), nF (nF), and pF (pF). 
Crystal diode 
Semiconductor devices in crystal diode (crystalics) solid-state electronics. The main features of these devices are non-linear current - voltage characteristics. After that with the development of semiconductor materials and process technology, using different semiconductor materials, doping distribution, geometric structure, developed variety structure, the function USES different kinds of crystal diode. Manufacturing materials have germanium, silicon and compound semiconductor. Crystal diode can be used to produce, control, receive, transform, amplify signal, and energy conversion. 
Crystal diodes are commonly used in circuits for "D", for example, "D5" means a diode with a number of 5. 
Effect: the main characteristic of a diode is one way conductivity, which is that the conductive resistance is small when the forward voltage is applied. In reverse voltage, the conduction resistance is maximal or infinite. Because of diode with the above properties, cordless telephone, to use it on rectification, isolation, voltage regulator, polarity protection, coding modulation, frequency modulation and static noise control circuits. Telephone do you use in the crystal diode according to the function can be divided into: (e.g., 1 n4004), isolation diode rectifier diode (e.g., 1 n4148), schottky diode (such as BAT85), light-emitting diodes, zener diodes, etc. 
2, recognition methods: identification of a diode is very simple, small power diode N pole (cathode), in the diode looks mostly adopts a circular color standard, some diodes also use special symbols to represent a P (positive) or N (cathode), also have use symbols for "P", "N" to determine of polarity of the diode. The positive and negative of the leds can be identified from the length of the pins, the feet are positive and the short legs are negative. 
3, test, note: when using a digital multimeter to measuring diode, red pens and pick up the positive, of the diode black pens and diode of the cathode, the measured resistance is the diode is the guide of value, the pointer multimeter pens and connection of the reverse. 
Four, stable diodes 
A stable diode (also called the zener diode) is a semiconductor device that has high resistance until the critical reverse breakdown voltage. The voltage stabilizer is commonly used in the circuit as "ZD", and the "ZD5" is a stable tube with a number of 5. 
1, the voltage stabilizer principle of the voltage stabilizer: the voltage stabilizer is the characteristic of the voltage stabilizer, and the voltage on both ends of the diode remains constant. So, when the voltage regulator tube access circuit, if because of the power supply voltage fluctuations, or other causes circuit, the voltage changes at various points in the load on both ends of the voltage will be basic remain unchanged. 
Fault features: the failure of the stabilized diode is mainly shown in the open circuit, short circuit and stable voltage. In these three failures, the previous fault showed a rise in the power voltage; The latter two types of failures are characterized by low voltage to zero or unstable output. 
Five, the inductance 
Inductance: when the coil is passed by an electric current, it inducts a magnetic field induction in the coil, which inducts the induction current to resist the current in the coil. We call this current and the coils of the coils the inductance, the inductance, the unit is "Henry" (H). It can also be used to make inductance components. 
The inductance is commonly used in the circuit as "L", for example: L6 indicates the inductance of the number 6. The inductor coil is made of a wire that insulates the insulation from a certain winding number. Dc can be through coil, dc resistance is the resistance of the conductor itself, the pressure drop is small; When ac signal through the coil, will produce self-induced electromotive force on both ends of the coil, self inductance electromotive force direction is opposite to the direction of the applied voltage, the way of communication, so the inductance dc resistance are the characteristics of communication, the higher the frequency, the greater the coil impedance. The inductance can be used to form a vibrating circuit in a circuit. The inductance generally has the direct standard and the color standard method, the color standard and the resistance are similar. For example: brown, black, gold, and gold indicate the inductance of 1uH (error 5%). 
The basic unit of inductance is: 1 H = 103mH = 106uH. 
Six, a capacitance diode 
The Varactor Diodes is also known as a "variable reactance diode". It is a diode used to make use of the dependency and principle of PN junction capacitance and reverse bias voltage Vr. 
Tube varactor is according to the common internal "p-n junction diode junction capacitance can changes over plus reverse voltage this principle specially designed a special kind of diode. Varactor diodes in cordless telephone mainly used in mobile phone or fixed phone, high frequency modulation circuit to realize low frequency signal modulation to the high frequency signal, and launch out. At work, the capacitance of the diode is added to the negative electrode, and the capacitance capacity of the capacitance is changed with the modulation voltage. 
Varactor fails, main show is the leakage or performance variation: (1) the leakage occurs, the high frequency modulation circuit will not work or modulation performance becomes poor. (2) the work of the high-frequency modulation circuit is unstable when the variable capacity is poor, so that the high frequency signal after the modulation is sent to the other person to be received by the other person. In one of these cases, the same type of variable capacitance diode should be replaced. 
Crystal triode 
Crystal triode, which is one of the basic components of semiconductor, has a current amplification and is the core element of electronic circuit. Triode is on a semiconductor substrate is made very close to the distance between two PN junction, the two PN junction is piece of semiconductor is divided into three parts, the middle section is the base area, on both sides of the part is the emitter and collector area, arranged a PNP and NPN two. 
The transistor is used in the circuit for "Q" and the number of "Q", for example, "Q17" means "triode" with number 17. 
Features: the transistor (triode) is a special device with two PN knots inside and amplifying capacity. It has two types of NPN and PNP types, and these two types of triode are able to make up for each other from the work features, which are used by PNP and NPN pairs. The pn-type triode, which is commonly used in the telephone, has the type: A92, 9015, etc. NPN triode has: A42, 9014, 9018, 9013, 9012 etc. 
The transistor is mainly used to magnify the amplification in the circuit, and there are three kinds of grafts in the common circuit. 
Eight, field effect tube 
Field Effect Transistor (FET). It is also known as the unipolar transistor. It is a voltage controlled semiconductor device. With high input resistance, low noise, low power consumption, large dynamic range, ease of integration, there is no secondary breakdown phenomenon and safe work area wide, has now become a bipolar transistor, and power transistor powerful competitors. 
Field-effect transistors have advantages such as high input impedance and low noise, and they are also widely used in various electronic devices. This is especially useful when the input class of the whole electronic device is used for the whole electronic device, which can obtain the performance that the average transistor is very difficult to achieve. 
The principle of the control principle is the same as the two main types of junction and insulator. 
The comparison of field effect tube to transistor 
(1) the field effect tube is the voltage control element, and the transistor is the current control element. In the case of only allowing a small current from the source, use the effect tube; When the signal voltage is low, the transistor should be chosen for the condition that the signal source is higher. 
(2) the field effect tube is the use of majority carrier conductive, so called the unipolar device, the transistor is the majority carrier, also make use of the minority carrier conductive. They are called bipolar devices. 
(3) the source and drain of some field tubes can be used interchangeably, and the grid pressure can be positive and negative, and the flexibility is better than the transistor. 
(4) the field effect tube in the small current and low voltage under the conditions of work, and its manufacturing process can be easily put a lot of field effect tube integrated on a silicon chip, so the field effect tube has been widely used in the large scale integrated circuit. 
Nine, sensors, 
Sensor is a physical device or biological organ, can detect, feel the outside of the signal, the physical conditions (such as light, heat, humidity) or chemical composition (such as smoke), and to ascertain the information to other devices or organs. 
National standard GB7665-87 under the sensor is defined as: "can feel regulation of measured and converted into usable signal device according to certain rules or device, usually by sensitive components and conversion components". Sensor is a kind of testing device, can feel the measured information, and can detect feel the information, will change according to certain rule become electrical signal output, or other form of information needed to satisfy the information transmission, processing, storage, display, record and control requirements. It is the first step towards automatic detection and automatic control. 
The "sensor" is defined in the new Webster dictionary: 
"From a system to power, the power is usually delivered to the device in the second system in another form." According to this definition, the function of the Sensor is a kind of energy conversion into another form of energy, so many scholars also use "Transducer and Transducer" called the "Sensor and Sensor". 
Ten, transformer 
Transformer (Transformer) is a device that USES electromagnetic induction to change the voltage of ac. The main components are primary coils, secondary coils and iron cores. In electrical equipment and wireless circuit, it is commonly used for lifting voltage, matching impedance, safety isolation and so on. 
In the generator, whether it's movement through the magnetic field or magnetic field coil through fixed coil, all can induction electric potential in the coil, the two cases, the value of the magnetic flux are unchanged, but the fellowship with coil chain there is a change in the number of magnetic flux, this is the principle of mutual induction. A transformer is a device that utilizes electromagnetic mutual inductance to transform voltage, current and impedance. The function of transformer is mainly: voltage transformation; Current transformation, impedance transformation; Isolation; Stable voltage (magnetic saturation transformer), etc. 

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